Tainan 台南事

【Inside out系列講座 V 】宅妻風格旅行社:里山.群島.鐵道 北川弗蘭振興三部曲

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〖講座內容〗
從「越後妻有藝術三年展」(Echigo-Tsumari Art Field)的里山風情,再到「瀨戶內國際藝術祭」(Setouchi Triennale)浪花、島嶼與藝術的混種之美,及以春季「鐵道」與黃澄澄的「油菜花田」為號召的「中房總國際藝術祭」(Ichihara ART x MIX),串連出北川弗蘭(Fram Kitagawa)與其所主導的Art Front Gallery所企圖創造「解決問題的藝術祭」,北川所選擇藝術介入的區域都面臨老化、人口外移的困境。北川將藝術祭模式的引入地方,企圖吸引青壯人口返鄉、增強當地觀光體質,重新活絡復健區域。利用藝術將廢校、車站、社區中心等過去的社區熱點再度帶動,並藉由能讓當地居民參與的藝術計畫,讓人們重新匯聚與溝通,對於目前極端速食全球化趨向的藝術展會模式,無形提供了一條逆返的深刻抵抗途徑。

講綱:
里山的農舞台:繪本與木之實的美術館、鼴鼠之家、里山現代美術館,從白盒子釋放到鄉野的藝術
海風中破浪的藝術闖關:豐島美術館、犬島精鍊所美術館、地中美術館,藝術相伴的島旅時間
睡床城市的溫柔復建:山林、野溪、花田的鐵道劇場

〖關於講者〗
張玉音,《典藏.今藝術》企劃編輯
茶農之女,與科技阿宅腦公的跨域聯姻,對於解析科技、科學與藝術等解疆界議題特別熱衷,並致力研發阿宅也能輕易上手的藝術旅遊攻略,迷戀於將文字內容策展化的手工藝,文章散見於《典藏.今藝術》、《立場新聞》、《FLiPER》等平台,現任《典藏.今藝術》企劃編輯,為文字女工與一位母親。

 

〖講座摘錄 2016.12.03〗

speaker: 張玉音, 整理: 陳湘汶

目前擔任《典藏‧今藝術》企劃編輯一職,而丈夫的背景則是工程師,在這樣的跨域聯姻條件下,如何在每次的藝術之旅裡同時滿足兩人的興趣,則成為了張玉音行前的功課。北川弗蘭(Fram Kitagawa)所策劃的三個藝術祭解救了他們⋯⋯。

北川弗蘭1946年出生於新瀉,畢業於東京藝術大學。以藝術介入鄉里地域的公共藝術手法聞名,是「越後妻有藝術三年展」、「瀨戶內國際藝術祭」、「中房總國際藝術祭」發起人暨藝術總監。而由北川發起的這些藝術祭的時代背景,其實與日本的政治情勢、文化制度有關,政治情勢方面:2009年民主黨黨魁鳩山由紀夫( Hatoyama Yukio )發表對於日本戰後長期追隨美國與資本主義的疲憊,也反映出日本社會對於全球化與資本主義的省思,從硬體轉向軟體內涵取向的文化政策。在文化制度方面:2001 文化藝術振興基本法,文化政策從中央集權再到地方分權;2008故里的納稅制度促進日本民眾實際貢獻地方文化活動。

而北川所懷抱的理念,則是有對於日本既有的美術史、現代城市的批判成分。他認為到現在為止的日本美術,只在乎教學、可不可以展示,或者是否可以成立組織,這是與大眾背離的。近代美術非大眾性的路線是有問題的,藝術不是給少數菁英,應該更要推廣到可能會有質疑或是不甚理解的世界。他重提柳宗悅的民藝論,從生活使用、手工製作的物件中找到用之美,可惜這項運動的深層結構與批判性沒有受到重視。現代都市講求效率、均質化,尋求最大量的資訊最短時間獲得,北川不集中作品展示,徹底非效率的把作品散在地域各處廢校、森林,就是要人「真正」走入地方。

講座主題為「宅妻旅行社」之意是張玉音身為藝術雜誌編輯的身份,同時又是人妻、人母,當一趟日本藝術祭的旅行動輒數天,必須兼顧家中成員的需求,自己尋找的是展覽活動裡的藝術性,而工程師老公偏好活動裡有攻略性例如集點挑戰、要有破關的樂趣,而作品本身要讓人容易理解。另一方面兩人也帶著剛出生的小孩同行,因此活動地點的易達性和交通方式是重點之一,本次的旅行Tips也是在這樣的條件下來分享。

越後妻有藝術三年展(Echigo-Tsumari Art Field

著名的越後妻有藝術三年展自2000年至今已舉辦六屆,位於新瀉縣越後妻有地域(十日町、津南町、川西、松代、松之山、中里),是北川最具代表性、耕耘最久的案例,為藝術進行農村轉型的經典案例。該地區面積和東京23區的區域差不多大,然人口卻僅有七萬七千多人,65歲以上的高齡人口更占了總數的三成,而正是有感於故鄉新潟面臨農村人口凋零、農地休耕、區域發展停滯、地方價值逐漸崩壞等危機,北川以他最擅長的藝術策展為貧瘠的故鄉注入翻紅的地域活化,只有正視、承認地域的困境與歷史才可能獲得新生。

越後妻有的旅行規劃,可以搭配東京行。由東京站至越後湯澤站(上越新幹線約110 分鐘 ),換乘一般鐵路,至十日町下車就可抵達主展場更夢幻的旅行方式是搭配日本最著名的戶外搖滾音樂祭 Fuji Rock富士搖滾音樂祭。相較選擇藝術祭老屋或特色民宿,旅宿建議在越後湯澤站,轉搭新幹線方便(行李、嬰兒車方便抵達)、選擇也相對多。

交通方式建議租車(要在台灣申請日文翻譯駕照證明,可在台灣網路就預訂好到現場取車,例如十日町站就能取車),旅行流暢度的首選。北川的三個藝術祭各處作品的指標都非常清晰,善用通行證與作品集點蓋章的功能,可以讓非藝術背景的人更以遊戲心態融入。因為北川選擇復興的地點皆非傳統的旅遊熱點,相對的旅遊資訊比較有限,但藝術祭導覽手冊則將當地有特色的旅宿、食店等都有詳細介紹,因此非常建議要購買。

瀨戶內國際藝術祭  Setouchi Triennale

瀨戶內國際藝術祭位於香川縣瀨戶內海與周邊島嶼,是把越後妻有經驗成功落實在漁村的案例,同時也成為台灣民眾近期旅遊的熱點。1980年代福武集團買下島嶼南邊的土地,身為瀨戶內海子弟的福武總一郎(Soichiro Fukutake),開啟與安藤忠雄(Tadao Ando)聯手打造「貝尼斯藝術園區」(Benesse Art Site),園區內包括與藝術品同居的昂貴風格旅館「貝尼斯飯店」(Benesse House),拿著旅館房卡在島內即有專門的旅館專車可搭乘,2004年安藤將建築注入土地的代表作「地中美術館」等,以直島命運轉向的契機與擁有越後妻有經驗的北川弗蘭聯手,促成了2010年「瀨戶內海國際藝術祭」。

如果有足夠的時間體力,建議可以搭配京都行,然後由京都的高松站(中途在岡山轉車,約兩小時15分鐘 ),可經過瀨戶內海大橋看到列車在島嶼和海面上行駛,非常過癮(因為是內海所以並無太大的風浪,不用擔心暈船問題)。雖然各島內都有特色民宿,帶嬰幼兒的爸媽還是強烈建議住在高松的商業旅館是最方便的選擇,因為任何島回到高松的航班都是最多及時間到最晚,旅行安排上比較不會有壓力。

因為瀨戶內藝術祭的作品散落在各個小島上,因此確認每天要去的島嶼,以及島跟島之間的交通船班是非常重要的,以免發生趕不上船而被困在某個島上的困擾。除此之外,每個島上的美術館休息日也不一定統一,事先必須確認好開放時間。

中房總國際藝術祭  Ichihara ART x MIX

中房總國際藝術祭始辦於2014年,這個藝術祭的開展填滿了北川三年一展的輪替計畫。該展的地理位置位於東京首都區東南邊的千葉縣中房總地區,包含縣內的市原市。市原因臨近首都圈,成為晨往東京工作、夜宿市原的「睡床都市」(bed town),由於人口往市原集中,都市以南的中房總區域便一樣面臨老化、人口外移的困境。藝術祭的介入便企圖吸引青壯人口返鄉、增強觀光體質,重新活絡復健這近郊區域。因為距離東京較近,時間上可搭配春天賞櫻時節,住宿可以選在東京,中房總的作品大約兩個整天可以跑完,因此一日選擇鐵道移動,一日選擇租車是不錯的交通選擇。

從東京搭乘JR到五井站,步下現代化列車,穿過跨越鐵道的天橋轉乘小湊鐵道,等待我們的是米黃與亮橘相間的小巧支線列車,僅有兩節車廂、手動的拉窗,座椅還貼心地散發出加溫的暖氣,穿著制服的車掌小姐來回親切地確認乘客手中的票券,這些復古的細節至少已經可列為鐵道迷合格的旅遊項目。市原市的小湊鐵道已經將近有90年的歷史,車站不僅是當地的運輸交通中心,更是當地人與人交流、溝通的重要場域,也因此藝術祭期許應用車站為藝術據點,再度活絡人群的連結。

結語

三個藝術祭的共通點:對於現代主義的反思與反動、對於自然土地的追尋、解決問題的社會雕塑、與日常生活的連結、由藝術帶動活化。

北川曾回憶「有些臨時性作品在藝術祭結束後必須拆除,當拆除儀式進行時,許多當地居民都流下眼淚。」藝術不僅讓貧瘠的土地充滿富饒的意義,尤其居民心靈重新的豐美,更是此藝術季最雄厚的資產。秉持「現地製作」(site-specificity)的原則,也是三個藝術祭作品重要的精神之一,藝術家進入偏鄉、從老農身上發想創作、學習當地的傳統工藝技術、或是以藝術計畫復興廢校,誠懇的姿態讓村民也從懷疑藝術介入的立場,逐漸軟化到包容與歡迎,北川也曾感嘆「這些改變都是金錢無法取代的經驗。」

 

主辦:佐佐目藝文工作室
贊助:財團法人國家文化藝術基金會

 

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